Introducing the art of Arabic, Ottoman, & Persian calligraphy

Glossary of calligraphic terms

ArabicTurkishPersianEnglish / definitionPhoto reference
MufraddatMufredatMufraddatDetached letters—the first stage in the traditional calligraphy learning process
MurakkabatMurekkebatMurakkabatAssembled letters—the second stage in the traditional calligraphy learning process
IjazaIcazetIjazaLicense—certificate given to the calligraphy student, allowing him or her to teach; means “permission,” or “authority”
KaralamaKaralamaKaralamaSingle sheets of calligraphic exercises
MeshkMeskMeshkPractice sheet or lesson
DawatDivitDawatPortable inkwell and pen holder
QalamKalemQalamA reed pen
LiqaLikaLiqaWad of silk used in an inkwell to absorb ink
MiqaddaMaktaNay-qatA cutting board on which you rest the pen when trimming the tip
TarkheemEbrüKaghaz-i abriThe art of paper marbling
BismillahBesmeleBismillahAn Islamic Arabic phrase meaning, “In the name of God, most gracious, most compassionate”